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更新时间:2024-06-22 13:55:40

1、【题目】The tourist trade is booming. With all this coming and going , you'd expect greater understanding o develop between the nations of the world. Not a bit of it ! Superb systems of communication by air, sea and land make it possible for us to visit each other's countries at a moderate cost. What was once the 'grand tour' , reserved for only the very rich , is now within everybody's grasp ?

The package tour and chartered flights are not to be sneered at. Modern travelers enjoy a level of comfort which the lords and ladies on grand tours in the old days couldn't have dreamed of. But what's the sense of this mass exchange of populations if the nations of the world remain basically ignorant of each other?

Many tourist organizations are directly responsible for this state of affairs. They deliberately set out to protect their clients from too much contact with the local population. The modern tourist leads a cosseted, sheltered life. He lives at international hotels , where he eats his international food and sips his international drink while he gazes at the natives from a distance. Conducted tours to places of interest are carefully censored. The tourist is allowed to see only what the organizers want him to see and no more. A strict schedule makes it impossible for the tourist to wander off on his own ; and anyway, language is always a barrier, so he is only too happy to be protected in this way. At its very worst , this leads to a new and hideous kind of colonization.

The summer quarters of the inhabitants of the cite universitaire : are temporarily reestablished on the island of Corfu. Blackpool is recreated at Torremolinos where the traveler goes not to eat paella, but fish and chips. The sad thing about this situation is that it leads to the persistence of national stereotypes. We don't see the people of other nations as they really are, but as we have been brought up to believe they are. You can test this for yourself. Take five nationalities , say, French, German, English, American and Italian. Now in your mind, match them with these five adjectives : musical, amorous, cold, pedantic, native. Far from providing us with any insight into the national characteristics of the peoples just mentioned , these adjectives actually act as barriers. So when you set out on your travels, the only characteristics you notice are those which confirm your preconceptions. You come away with the highly unoriginal and inaccurate impression that , say,'Anglo-Saxons are hypocrites' of that 'Latin peoples shout a lot'. You only have to make a few foreign friends to understand how absurd and harmful national stereotypes are. But how can you make foreign friends when the tourist trade does its best to prevent you ? Carried to an extreme, stereotypes can be positively dangerous. Wild generalizations stir up racial hatred and blind us to the basic fact 〞how trite it sounds ! 每 That all people are human. We are all similar to each other and at the same time all unique.

1. The best title for this passage is

[A] Tourism contributes nothing to increasing understanding between nations.

[B] Tourism is tiresome.

[C] Conducted tour is dull.

[D] Tourism really does something to one's country.

2. What is the author's attitude toward tourism ?

[A] apprehensive. [B]negative. [C] critical. [D] appreciative.

3. Which word in the following is the best to summarize Latin people shout a lot?

[A] silent. [B] noisy. [C] lively. [D] active.

4. The purpose of the author's criticism is to point out

[A] conducted tour is disappointing.

[B]the way of touring should be changed.

[C] when traveling , you notice characteristics which confirm preconception.

[D] national stereotypes should be changed.

5. What is 'grand tour' now ?

[A] moderate cost.

[B]local sight-seeing is investigated by the tourist organization.

[C] people enjoy the first-rate comforts.

[D] everybody can enjoy the 'grand tour'










In China, to restore lost property to its original owner is regarded as one of the most cherished virtues. However, the draft property rights law stipulates that property Owners should pay some money to the one who returns the property. Is it a deviation from traditional values? Write a composition of about 400 words to state your view.

In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.

You should supply an appropriate title for your essay.

Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.



In Favor of Rewards for Good Conduct

To restore lost property to its original owner describes one of the most cherished virtues embodied by the Chinese people. The draft law stipulates that property owners should give rewards to the people or organizations that return their property, such as storage. To some people, the new provision challenges the virtue that China has advocated for thousands of years by including economic compensation into law. Yet to me, it is a good thing to regulate a moral concept with law.

Since people spend time and energy in restoring lost property, it is reasonable for the actual owner to offer some material reward. There is no contradiction between kind deeds and material compensation. If those who help others by fighting off robbers can be rewarded, why not those who return lost property? More importantly, giving people tangible reward has significance in reality. According to a survey, most people who get back their lost items are willing to give a reward to the finder. Providing a compromise solution between returning and keeping lost items, this new provision encourages people to return lost property rather than hiding it. Although one may say it diminishes the nobility associated with it, it is better to have more lost property restored to original ownership.

Law should play a role only where moral principle fails, otherwise, there would be chaos in social relations. I think this is the basis for transformation of law, specifically the stipulation of restoring lost property in propert, rights law. The major goal of this legislation is to restore property owners’ right over lost property. It is true that restoring lost property to its owner is our traditional virtue. For a long time, we have been relying on this moral principle in dealing with lost property. But today, we have to admit that it falls behind the realities of current society if we rely solely on it in handling the issue of lost property, the result is a much slighter possibility of lost property being returned and increasing disputes about restoring lost property.

All in all, without modification, traditional virtues will be going farther away from the realities of modern life and become irrelevant. What’s more, the draft of the property rights law stipulates that a finder“can’’ receive reward, which means they can also refuse reward. Thus, this does not thwart virtuous people from practicing our traditional virtues.





Life is like a cup of wine; people who love it discover inexhaustible wonders from it. Hold in the hand and gaze at it, the dark red color is reminiscent of the blood, which is the impress of life. Take a sip of it and appreciate the taste, the bittersweet flavor is exactly the same with life, which is complicated and blurred. Once the sip is swallowed, the lingering fragrance pleases the heart and refreshes the mind, leaving a person lifelong benefit. There was a remarkable resemblance between life and wine: the taste becomes more delicious as the wine mellows, just as life gets better as it becomes more abundant. When life comes to twilight years, it looks calm and tastes full of wisdom and generosity, just like a bottle of wine to be savored.



1、【题目】汉译英;但是正如其他许多已经发生过的事情一样,当他们最终结婚后, 发现最憧憬的生活变得再实际不过了。他们非但没有分担各自原先的责任--- 正如那些学生们所说 " 一半一半 " ,相反却发现生活的重担加倍了。 这使得我们那两个结婚的朋友时常觉得沮丧;他们突然发现自己并没有过着天堂般的生活而是仍实实在在地生活在地球上,而且成为了新规则和新约束的奴隶。生活并没有比以前更自由、更幸福,因为他们要去承担新的责任。 既然成立了一个新的家庭, 那就无论如何也要尽一点家庭的义务。 他们深情地回想起订婚的那段时光, 曾经如此地渴望拥有彼此而忘掉这个世界,然而现在最深切的感受却是自己仍是这个世界的一份子。


But, as has been true in many other cases, when they were at last married, the most ideal of situations was found to have been changed to the most practical. Instead of having shared their original duties, and as school-boys would say, going halves, they discovered that the cares of life had been doubled. This led to some distressing moments for both our friends; they understood suddenly that instead of dwelling in heaven they were still upon earth, and had make themselves slaves to new laws and limitations. Instead of being freer and happier than ever before, they had assumed new responsibilities; they had established a new household, and must fulfill in some way or another the obligations of it. They looked back with affection to their engagement; they had been longing to have other to themselves, apart from the world, but it seemed they never felt so keenly that they were still units in modern society.



1、【题目】As Gilbert White,Darwin , and others observed long ago, all species appear to have theinnate capacity to increase their numbers from generation to generation. The task forecologistsis to untangle the environmentaand biologicalfactorsthat hold this intrinsiccapacity for population growth in check over the long run. The great variety of dynamicbehaviorsexhibitedby differentpopulationmakes thistaskmore difficult:sompopulations remain roughly constant from year to year; others exhibit regular cycles ofabundance and scarcity; still others vary wildly, with outbreaks and crashes that arein some cases plainly correlated with the weather, and in other cases not.To impose some order on this kaleidoscopeof patterns , one school of thought proposesdividing populations into two groups. These ecologists posit that the relatively steadypopulations havedensity-dependent growth parameters; that is, rates ofbirth , death ,and migrationwhich depend strongly on population density. The highly varying populationshave density-independent growth parameters, with vital rates buffeted by environmentalevents ;these rates fluctuate in a way that is wholly independent of population density.This dichotomy has its uses, but it can cause problems if taken too literally. Forone thing , no population can be driven entirely by density-independent factors all thetime. No matter how severely or unpredictably birth, death , and migration rates may befluctuatingaround theirlong-termaverages , ifthere were no density-dependenteffects ,the populationwould , in the long run , eitherincrease or decrease without bound (barringa miracle by which gains and losses canceled exactly)。 Put another way, it may be thaton average 99 percent of all deaths in a populationarise from density-independentcauses ,and only one percent from factors varying with density.The factorsmaking up the one percentmay seem unimportant, and their cause may be correspondingly hard to determine. Yet,whether recognized or not, they will usually determine the long-term average populationdensity.In order to understand the nature of theecologist ’s investigation, we may think ofthe density-dependent effectson growth parameters as the signal ecologists are trying toisolateand interpret, one that tends to make the population increase from relativelylowvalues or decrease from relatively high ones, while the density-independent effects actto produce noise in the populationdynamics.For populationsthatremain relativelyconstant , or that oscillate around repeated cycles, the signal can be fairly easilycharacterized and its effects described, even though the causative biological mechanismmay remain unknown. For irregularly fluctuating populations, we are likely to have toofew observations to have any hope of extracting the signal from the overwhelming noise.But it now seems clear that all populationsare regulatedby a mixture of density-dependentand density-independent effects in varying proportions.

1. The author of the text is primarily concerned with

[A] Discussing two categories of factorsthat controlpopulationgrowth and assessingtheir relative importance.

[B] Describinghow growth ratesin naturalpopulationsfluctuateover time andexplaining why these changes occur.

[C] Proposing a hypothesisconcerning population size and suggesting ways to test it.

[D] Posing a fundamental question about environmentalfactorsin populationgrowth andpresenting some currently accepted answer.

2. It can be inferred from the text that the author considers the dichotomy discussedto be

[A] Applicable only to erratically fluctuating populations.

[B] instrumental, but only if its limitations are recognized.

[C] Dangerously misleading in most circumstances.

[D] A complete and sufficient way to account for observed phenomena.

3.to the text , allof the followingbehaviors have been exhibitedby differentpopulations EXCEPT

[A] Roughly constant population levels from year to year.

[B] Regular cycles of increases and decreases in numbers.

[C] Erratic increases in numbers correlated with the weather.

[D] Unchecked increases in numbers over many generations.

4. The discussion concerning population in the third paragraph serves primarily to

[A] Demonstrate the difficultiesecologistsface in studying density-dependentfactorslimiting population growth.

[B] Advocate more rigorous study of density-dependent factors in population growth.

[C] Prove that the death rates of any populationare never entirelydensity-independent.

[D] underline the importance of even small density-dependent factors in regulatinglong-term population densities.

5. In the text, the author does all of the following EXCEPT

[A] Cite the views of other biologists.

[B] Define a basic problem that the text addresses.

[C] Present conceptual categories used by other biologists.

[D] Describe the results of a particular study.
















“Tradition and modernization are incompatible. One must choose between them”. To what degree do you agree with this statement? Write an essay of about 400 words.

In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.

You should supply an appropriate title for your essay.

Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.



Tradition and Modernization Can Be Compatible

There is much debate over whether tradition and modernization are compatible. Some people maintain that they necessarily conflict with each other, while others argue that it is possible to combine tradition and modernization in our pursuit of development. As far as I am concerned, these two forces undermine each other at times, but they can also compliment each other, if handled properly.

Most people take it for granted that modernization and tradition are contradictory, which is true in a sense. Modernization, a popular yet a vague term, is generally understood as "Westernization," which means individualist, rights-based democracy, capitalism, and technological imperatives. Meanwhile, tradition comprises the whole complex of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterize a specific society or a social group. It includes not only the arts and letters, but also modes of life, the value systems and beliefs of the indigenous people. In this sense, it is only natural that modernization, as a foreign culture forced upon non-Western cultures, tends to cause damage to the tradition and arouse confrontation from the native people involved in this destructive and painful process. Where modernization marches on, we often see traditional customs disappearing, traditional value systems collapsing, traditional craftsmanship withering, and traditional ways of life disintegrating. As a result, modernization has not brought about prosperity and happiness at it promises to traditional societies. On the contrary, we are alarmed at the deterioration of the cities and disintegration of society—overcrowding; slum formation; breakdown of culture, community, and family; isolation of social and age groups, etc. —as well as the environmental destruction—water and air pollution; noise; destruction of wildlife, vegetation and land, etc.

However, if we understand modernization as sustainable development, we must believe in the necessity and possibility of synthesizing modernization and tradition. Development can only flourish where it is rooted in the culture and the tradition of each country, since it is an all-encompassing process linked to each society's own values and calling for an active participation of individuals and groups who are both the authors and the beneficiaries of it. The success of Japan and the South-East Asian "dragons," is a case in point. While espousing the free enterprise system of the western development model, these traditional societies dosed it with more than a little government control, a form of paternalism alien to the West but totally in keeping with their own traditions. In the same vein, China is confidently pushing forward its development by synthesizing modernization and tradition.

To conclude, it seems unavoidable that some traditional cultural elements will be lost in the process of modernization. Yet any external experience, technique or model cannot be successfully integrated by mere adopting or reproduction; it needs to be reinterpreted or reinvented in such a way that it can be absorbed through the filter of the society's cultural identity and value system. In other words, any traditional society, if it aims at sustainable development, should endeavor to maintain a mutually enriching relationship between the external modernization and the internal tradition.




1、【题目】汉译英:生活就像一杯红酒, 热爱生活的人会从其中品出无穷无尽的美妙。将它握在手中仔细观察, 它的暗红色中有血的感觉, 那正是生命的痕迹。抿一口留在口中回味, 它的甘甜中有一丝苦涩, 如人生一般复杂迷离。喝一口下肚,余香沁人心脾,让人终身受益。红酒越陈越美味,生活越丰富越美好。当人生走向晚年,就如一瓶待开封的好酒,其色彩是沉静的,味道中充满慷慨与智慧。


Life is like a cup of wine; people who love it discover inexhaustible wonders from it. Hold in the hand and gaze at it, the dark red color is reminiscent of the blood, which is the impress of life. Take a sip of it and appreciate the taste, the bittersweet flavor is exactly the same with life, which is complicated and blurred. Once the sip is swallowed, the lingering fragrance pleases the heart and refreshes the mind, leaving a person lifelong benefit. There was a remarkable resemblance between life and wine: the taste becomes more delicious as the wine mellows, just as life gets better as it becomes more abundant. When life comes to twilight years, it looks calm and tastes full of wisdom and generosity, just like a bottle of wine to be savored.



1、【题目】汉译英:流逝,表现了南国人对时间最早的感觉。“子在川上曰,逝者如斯夫。”他们发现无论是潺潺小溪,还是浩荡大河,都一去不复返,流逝之际青年变成了老翁而绿草转眼就枯黄,很自然有错阴的紧迫感。 流逝也许是缓慢的,但无论如何缓慢,对流逝的恐惧使人们必须用“流逝”这个词来时时警戒后人, 必须急匆匆地行动,给这个词灌注一种紧张感。


They realized that both the babbling brook and the mighty river would flow on, and that their waters would never return. They found that as time passed by, young men would become old and the green grass would turn yellow and wither in almost the blink of an eye. A sense of urgency naturally arose over the elusiveness of time. No matter how slowly time flowed, the very fear of its transiency compelled people to use the word“passage to warn the coming generations of the necessity”of taking prompt action; thus instilling the word with a sense of tension.



1、【题目】汉译英:都市寸土千金,地价炒得越来越高。今后将更高。拥有一个小小花园的希望,对寻常之辈不啻是一种奢望,一种梦想。我想,其实谁都有一个小小花园,这便是我们的内心世界。人的智力需要开发,人的内心世界也是需要开发的。 人和动物的区别,除了众所周知的诸多方面,恐怕还在于人有内心世界。 心不过是人的一个重要脏器, 而内心世界是一种景观, 它是由外部世界不断地作用于内心渐渐形成的。每个人都无比关注自己及至亲至爱之人心脏的健损, 以至于稍有微疾便惶惶不可终日。但并非每个人都关注自己及至亲至爱之人的内心世界的阴晴。


I think everyone, in effect, has a small garden or a flower bed of his own, namely, our inner world. Just as there is a need for human beings to tap into their own intelligence, so is the case with their inner world. What distinguishes between human beings and animals, apart from the various aspects which are universally known, may probably be in that human beings have an inner world. Heart is no more than an important organ whereas the inner world constitutes a landscape, which gradually takes its shape under the continuous influence from the outside world. So great is the importance that everyone attaches to the physical condition of his own heart or those of his closest and dearest ones that merely a minor disease would enduringly weigh on his mind.










The 76th Annual Academy Awards attracted the attention o{an unprecedented numSample 1

Heading For the Oscars

Although the grand ceremony of Oscar was over this year, the attention and discussion linger in the Chinese movie community and out. Some insiders hold that following global trends is the only way to develop China’s film industry. Others insist, however, that the Oscars are simply one the many awards that Americans like to crown themselves. Domestic films should maintain their distinct flavors. As a movie fan myself, I think we should strive for it to gain international recognition.

Firstly, the Oscars Award is an international recognition in terms of both artistic performance and box office revenue. With live broadcast in 50 languages, it plays a huge role in shaping the global film industry. It is no wonder that so many people around the world pay much attention to it. The reality is that Hollywood movies account for more than 90 percent of global market shares-this has inevitable worldwide impact. Obviously, the Oscars Award has become something that we can not afford to ignore it.

Moreover, we live in a global, multicultural world where different cultures interact. China’s movie industry needs to realize it and sharpen its competitive edge. If Chinese films are to make a global impact, then movie production, distribution and marketing organization need improving. Chinese films should adjust to satisfy the variety of social demands. The introduction of foreign successful formulas and technology is a must for Chinese film industry. It is parochial to think that China can only use its national characteristics to define domestic movies. Conservatism will hinder the progress of film industry. If China does not develop its film industry through embracing innovative multiculturalism, Chinese movies will have little opportunity to gain a share in the international market.

Last but not least, the Hollywood films also conform to specific cultural demands. Take this year’s Academy Awards as an example, nominated movies include both high-cost productions like The Lord of the Rings and subtle, more moderate budgeted projects like Lost in Translation, these films suggest that Hollywood movies maintain a basic balance in keeping the style of its own and absorbing diverse cultures. Hence, the Chinese filmmakers should spare no efforts to present original domestic films to foreign viewers. We will be left behind if we stick to the so-called orthodox. For instance, Couching Tiger Hidden Dragon was acted by Chinese actors and through cultural icons, but actually its style and structure of the movie all conform to a Hollywood formula. This partly explains why it appeals to a wider range of audiences from different cultural background.

In a word, the Oscars are very important to Chinese filmmakers. Nominations are a kind of approval by international peers of their achievements. As China’s market improves, its movie industry will get stronger and will eventually cash in on the Oscars.ber of Chinese thanks to complete live TV coverage. However, except for Couching Tiger Hidden Dragon, directed by Taiwanese filmmaker An Lee, no other Chinese film has even been nominated for an Oscar award. Should our domestic films aim at this Hollywood award or is it someone else's game? Write a composition of about 400 words to state your view.

In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.

You should supply an appropriate title for your essay.

Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.



1、【题目】In some countries where racial prejudice is acute, violence has so come to be taken for granted as a means of solving differences, that it is not even questioned. There are countries where the white man imposes his rule by brute force; there are countries where the black man protests by setting fire to cities and by looting and pillaging. Important people on both sides, who would in other respects appear to be reasonable men, get up and calmly argue in favor of violence – as if it were a legitimate solution, like any other. What is really frightening, what really fills you with despair, is the realization that when it comes to the crunch, we have made no actual progress at all. We may wear collars and ties instead of war-paint, but our instincts remain basically unchanged. The whole of the recorded history of the human race, that tedious documentation of violence, has taught us absolutely nothing. We have still not learnt that violence never solves a problem but makes it more acute. The sheer horror, the bloodshed, the suffering mean nothing. No solution ever comes to light the morning after when we dismally contemplate the smoking ruins and wonder what hit us. The truly reasonable men who know where the solutions lie are finding it harder and herder to get a hearing. They are despised, mistrusted and even persecuted by their own kind because they advocate such apparently outrageous things as law enforcement. If half the energy that goes into violent acts were put to good use, if our efforts were directed at cleaning up the slums and ghettos, at improving living-standards and providing education and employment for all, we would have gone a long way to arriving at a solution. Our strength is sapped by having to mop up the mess that violence leaves in its wake. In a well-directed effort, it would not be impossible to fulfill the ideals of a stable social programme. The benefits that can be derived from constructive solutions are everywhere apparent in the world around us. Genuine and lasting solutions are always possible, providing we work within the framework of the law. Before we can even begin to contemplate peaceful co-existence between the races, we must appreciate each other's problems. And to do this, we must learn about them: it is a simple exercise in communication, in exchanging information. "Talk, talk, talk," the advocates of violence say, "all you ever do is talk, and we are none the wiser." It's rather like the story of the famous barrister who painstakingly explained his case to the judge. After listening to a lengthy argument the judge complained that after all this talk, he was none the wiser. "Possible, my lord," the barrister replied, "none the wiser, but surely far better informed." Knowledge is the necessary prerequisite to wisdom: the knowledge that violence creates the evils it pretends to solve.

1. What is the best title for this passage?

[A] Advocating Violence.

[B] Violence Can Do Nothing to Diminish Race Prejudice.

[C] Important People on Both Sides See Violence As a Legitimate Solution.

[D] The Instincts of Human Race Are Thirsty for Violence.

2. Recorded history has taught us

[A] violence never solves anything. [B] nothing. [C] the bloodshed means nothing. [D]everything.

3. It can be inferred that truly reasonable men

[A] can't get a hearing.

[B] are looked down upon.

[C] are persecuted.

[D] Have difficulty in

advocating law enforcement.

4. "He was none the wiser" means

[A] he was not at all wise in listening.

[B] He was not at all wiser than nothing before.

[C] He gains nothing after listening.

[D] He makes no sense of the argument.

5. According the author the best way to solve race prejudice is

[A] law enforcement. [B] knowledge. [C] nonviolence. [D] Mopping up the violent mess.










手机刷新了人与人的关系。会议室门口通常贴着一条通告:请与会者关闭手机。可是会议室里的手机铃声仍然响成一片。我们都是普通人,并没有多少重要的事情。尽管如此, 我们也不会轻易关掉手机。 打开手机象征我们与这个世界的联系。手机反映出我们的 "社交饥渴症 "。最为常见的是,一个人走着走着突然停下来,眼睛盯着手机屏幕发短信。他不在乎停在马路中央还是厕所旁边。



Cell phone has altered / renovated human relations / relationships. There is usually a note on the door of conference room, which reads “close your handset / cell phone.” However, the rings are still resounding in the room. We are all common people and have few urgencies to do. Still, we are reluctant to turn off the phone. Cell phone symbolizes our connection with the world and reflects our“thirst for socialization.”

We are familiar with the scene that a person stops his steps to edit short messages with eyes glued at his phone, regardless of his location, whether in road center or beside restroom.




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